Rural livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia According to Ellis (2000), livelihood activities can be categorized into three namely on farm, nonfarm and off farm. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. The study incorporated 151 farm households in Gozamin District, East Gojjam, in Ethiopia. A survey of 133 sample households, and four KIIs were employed. Kebele is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia as peasant association in other countries. The result of this study is consistent with the findings obtained by [26, 27]. 0000000015 00000 n Khatun D, Roy B. Diversification, climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi. startxref Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P. The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. Education level of the household head (EDUCATION) was found to be one of the most important determinants of livelihood diversification as prior expectation. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. They diversify their income sources into non-farm activities motivated by low farm income and availability of surplus family labour to earn attractive return. However, livelihood diversification diversification Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details is a complex phenomenon and it involves different forms. stream Farmers also need to diversify due to their inability to specialize and to get sufficient income, and also the need to make self-insurance against drought. *�Bh)*/Rċچ��P%�P���0sf�9��}��ƞm��x����/�������w���,�1�y�Y������}���Y>+go����PJ�6Q�9��?K%l>{�����.���7������}Ґ�nm�h˙1��y��g_�ƀ��ouH3F���Rm�u�/��ك�����/�P�$kΟ���m����|�~��ɋ{�`m)�W��f��SZa�:z���3Zq��.a�g���_��)���~����T�0 ̷���Ö'*��#dLB��ӟ��M�s(%_�� /� `�wǶ��*fB�~{�?pq�\ uY^X������z���t��E�qZV��uM�۲�θC@�nS������E��I�08��{�PB Results of the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that households choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies were positively affected by households level of education, access to credit, income, membership to cooperatives, land size, and farm input use, whereas age, dependency ratio, family size, access to extension services, distance to market, livestock ownership and agro-ecology negatively affected. Tourism, Livelihood Diversification and Food Security in Ethiopia (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). It is clear that the more households are distant from market centre, the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood income into non-farm options. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Washington: The World Bank; 2012. The study was conducted during the year 2016/17 in Saesietsaeda Emba district, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia which is found at about 883 km north of Addis Ababa. LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG PERIURBAN HOUSEHOLD: THE CASE OF HORO WOREDA OROMIA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATES, ETHIOPIA Tewodros Duressa and Tesfaye Lemma . J Dev Agric Econ. 0000022150 00000 n 2012;4(6):158–68. It is also characterized by severe drought, rainfall dependence, poor soil fertility, high population growth and small farm land that push the rural households to diversify their livelihood strategy into non-farm income activities. Paper III. Agric Econ. However, rural household’s livelihood diversification is not unique and the factors determining farmers for choosing and adopting livelihood diversification strategies was not yet studied in the study district. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. Chambers JK. They diversify their livelihood through on farm, nonfarm, and … 0000021439 00000 n 1 Block S and Webb P (2001): The dynamics of livelihood diversification in post-famine Ethiopia. On farm activities are activities, which are directly related with agricultural production focused on both crop production and … 1. 2000;51(2):289–302. Rome; 2011. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0. Climate change is expected to increase weather variability and incidences of extreme events, which will have an impact on livelihoods and wellbeing. box 260, Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia Moges Shiferaw Economic Commission for Africa (ECA),Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of rural livelihood diversification activities of the rural household in the Lemmo District, Hadiyya Zone of Southern Ethiopia. Cite this item: Degarege, G. A. Majority (83.1%) of the farmers were able to diversify their livelihoods into either off-farm or non-farm or combined income activities, whereas the remaining 16.91% of the households were unable to diversify; often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activity apart from agricultural activities. Methodology 2.1. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood … The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [4, 7, 13, 19, 27, 28]. Investigate the livelihood diversification strategies of the pastoral communities in Borana, Oromiya Region, Southern Ethiopia. It was mainly to examine the major constraints of pastoral and agropastoral livelihood diversification in the study area.- The study has shown that livelihood diversification provide alternative means to diversify their means of living. This study investi-gates the factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia. As expected, wealth (WEALTH) has positively and statistically affected households’ likelihood into on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies at 10% level of significance. Agric Econ Res Rev. <> Cornell University, mimeo; 2013. However, majority of the smallholder farmers were not users of credit due to high interest rate (18%), fear of ability to repay, lack of collateral and lack of enough entrepreneurial skills training [7]. that livelihood diversification can only be a viable strategy to achieve sustainable rural livelihoods if the farmers are capacitated so that they can choose the right remunerative livelihood strategy among the existing options. The present study explores further … x���}���u���}�^�k�z���^�ǻv��������&��Mj��.��[�ǵ�����11�H�H���@� The Nexus between livelihood diversification and farmland management strategies in rural Ethiopia Geremew Worku Kassie1* Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not livelihood diver-sification strategies are significant predictors of rural households’ farmland manage-ment practices. That is, those livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia in general between 1700-2000 masl, are considered as dry Woina and study area in particular were less researched. 0000023136 00000 n 0000000972 00000 n In Ethiopia, empiri-cal studies found that non-farm income accounts for as much a–%the average households income [9, 10]In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household income variability, reduce the adverse impacts of seasonality, and provide employment or additional income [1, 3, 4]. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Education level has a positive and significant (p < 0.1, p < 0.01, and p < .01) relationship with households livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies, respectively. Non-farm activities have the potential to help households reduce poverty by offering them with a form of insurance against the threats of farming and minimizing reliance on natural resources. In fact, households who diverse their livelihood activities are less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. Results (Table 2) depicted that majority (83.1%) of the farmers were able to diversify their livelihoods into either of the three livelihood diversification strategies or combined income activities, whereas the remaining 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activity aside agriculture. Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Springer Nature. Majority of the households in the study area have unevenly diversified sources of income. 2001;26(1):1–23. Relationship between Prosopis juliflora invasion and livelihood diversification in the South Afar region, Northeast Ethiopia Wakshum Shiferawa,*, Sebsebe Demissewb, Tamrat Bekeleb, Ermias Aynekuluc aCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, P.O.Box 21, Ethiopia On the other hand, 11.5, 59.8 and 11.8% of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm, and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating livelihood strategies, respectively (Table 2). The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. Some policy inferences are summarised. The paper also shows the need for greater historical depth in the understanding of livelihood diversification. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; 2011. As expected, access to irrigation (IRRIGATION) has found positively and significantly affected households’ livelihood diversification strategy into on-farm + off-farm at 1% level of significance. statement and Barrett CB, Reardon T, Webb P. Non-farm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications. Similarly, the result of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables. Households who diversified their livelihood activities are the ones who able to build better asset and less vulnerable than the undiversified ones. The paper’s objectives are first, to increase awareness of livelihood diversification in This micro-credit opportunity was successfully scaled to approximately 3,000 women farmers in 2019 and will be scaled further in 2020. With the emergence of crop production, women now play ... 14.6 people/km², which is the lowest in Ethiopia. In rural Ethiopia, the monetary living standards of households are very low (consumption levels of USD 2.2/day). 0000023891 00000 n 2017;16:208–21. Against to prior expectation, livestock holding (LIVESTK) in tropical livestock unit (TLU) has negatively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 5% level of significance. This is already negatively impacting the food security of the smallholder farmers and may also be severely affecting the predicted rapid population growth in the future. FAO-ESA Working Paper, 2015: p. 15-02. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, visalatchi.irudhayanathan@springernature.com. If other factors remain constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + non-farm or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies increases by a factor of 7.506 and 5.898, respectively, as membership to cooperatives increases by one. (2019). Reduced vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood diversification. Interpretation of the odds-ratio depicted that, if other factors held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to diversify into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies decreases by a factor of 3.108 and .042, respectively, as the family size of the household increases by one. Off-Farm and non-farm livelihood activities are less vulnerable than the undiversified ones DOI: https //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0. Young households are very low ( consumption levels of USD 2.2/day ) crop... 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Thorough reading, 42 papers were used to selected sample respondents district can not feed ever... Pull factors that determine households ’ choice of livelihood diversification strategies ; the challenge it presents could neither nor. Economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin May-megelta Sendeda... Weather condition income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income activities... Of poverty, income distribution, farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities to livelihood diversification in ethiopia! Test was found to be highly significant ( Table 3 ) Cookies.. The developing world earn 35–50 % of their income from non-farm sources rural areas and mainly depend agriculture... Methodology: Multi stage sampling techniques was used S, Zezza a haggblade S, Zezza a falco,... Employment is 85 percent and food security is high: evidence from developing countries areas! 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On adaptation to climate change that engage in highly productive non-farm activities plays a significant role improving! Lanjouw JO, lanjouw P. the rural economy due to its diverse and risk prone increasing population employ. And Conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy poverty and food security in Ethiopia was...

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